The double machine of figure (5) shows an almost ideal configuration where compensation for the spatial distortion of current withdrawal as well as doubling of voltage output is accomplished by contra-rotating magnetized rotors supported on a single shaft. There is a striking similarity between this construction of an N machine space power generator and the suggested twin counter-rotating gyroscopes mounted on a single shaft as an anti-gravitational mechanical space power generator. It is suggested that a mechanical space power generator is converted into an electrical space power generator simply by magnetization of the gyroscopic rotators.
In terms of the Force - Energy paradigm the constrained repulsive force generated between the contra-rotating magnets upon the withdrawal of current represents a measure of the electrical power output of the machine. In the anti-gravitational space power machine the torques created in the precession of the counter-rotating gyroscopes, absorbed one upon the other are representative of the anti-gravitational effect.
Force - Energy
On the basis of the geometry of both the electrical and mechanical force machines there should be no drag or resistance to precession of the counter-rotating gyroscopes or contra-rotation of the magnetic rotors. Force - Energy equivalence relates to the relationship of internally generated constrained forces and space power output. What we would call efficiency would relate to the work input to these machines, i.e. torque x angular velocity compared with the space power output.
Space power is developed out of distortion of the normally isotropic space, the amount of distortion being represented by the reflected internally constrained forces explicitly developed in these machines. As yet there is no measure of space power expressed mechanically as an anti-gravitational effect. Electrically developed space power can be measured in watts. Consequently the efficiency of an electrical space power generator can be expressed as electrical watts output divided by the electrical equivalent of mechanical power required to rotate the magnets.
On the basis of present understandings of electrical and mechanical forces, the geometries of both the mechanical and electrical space power machines allow of none of the internally constrained forces developed to appear in the drive axis. Consequently space power should be developed as totally free mechanical or electrical energy.
Measurements on practical machines however do show drag to be present. Because one torque is neutralized by an equal and opposite mechanical torque or a force of electrical repulsion is constrained by an equal and opposite mechanical force does not mean that the space in which the neutralization occurs is returned to its original state of isotropicity. I have given a great deal of consideration to this situation.
Defect of Forces
In the conservative physics of the work-energy paradigm the thermodynamic law of Equi-partition of energy gives some insight of the energy coupling of orthogonal modes of mechanically interpreted systems. In the physics of energies elicited through spatial distortion of the cosmic primordial field a useful idea is the concept of Defect of Forces which can help us understand the properties of situations whose neutrality is achieved by the balancing of equal and opposing similarly derived forces.
The idea is that when a force is manifested as a counterpoise to an experimentally created spatial distortion, i.e. the forces existing in the body of a rotating flywheel, mutually constrained precessional torques or the balancing of electromagnetic distortions by the superposition of equal and opposite vector fields; the manifested force is not perfect.
A perfect force by definition possesses only magnitude and direction. A real force manifested as a counterpoise to a condition of spatial distortion has a magnitude, a direction, and something else. The something else would be a property of imperfection common to the universal manifestation of what we know as Reality. The philosophical treatment of the innate imperfection of Reality is beyond the scope of this paper. Suffice it to say, in a physical sense, the defect of forces is a real entity and is the property held in common by all manifested forces, and represents a possible mode of coupling between them. For example an explanation for the phenomena of inertia can be developed out of the coupling of atomic and nuclear forces to the balance of the mass in the Universe through the mechanism of defect of forces.
The defect of forces exists, yet is unquantifiable except in terms of itself and has no known properties in terms of things that exist. Its existence is non-existence yet it is held in common with all things that exist. I posit that defect is connected and is responsible for the phenomenon of inertia.
In terms of this paper I posit the drag which appears in the drive axis of orthogonal machines is a coupling of the force counterpoise of the created spatial distortion into the drive axis through the mechanism of connectivity of defect.
Force - Energy equivalence is a simple expression that in what I call orthogonal machines a force is manifested proportional to the degree of created spatial distortion. The primordial cosmic field is pure energy, consequently distorting it to obtain a polarization from which power is drawn can make available an arbitrarily large quantity of energy. The energy available is limited more by the mechanism of extraction than the cosmic field.
The idea of efficiency applies to the particular configuration of mechanically realizable extraction apparatus. Force - Energy is a way of characterization of the degree of spatial distortion achievable with mechanical apparatus. Defect of forces is a concept to explain why free energy machines are not infinitely efficient. It is also proposed as a mechanism to explain the phenomena of inertia.
The machines we construct are almost infinitely puny in comparison to the energy released from the cosmic field observed in the super-nova. The ideas of spatial distortion, Force - Energy equivalence, and defect of forces may open our eyes somewhat to the latent and omnipresent power and majesty of the universe.
It is constructive to consider the interpretation of familiar phenomena from the viewpoint of Free Energy. Distortion of the cosmic energy field by the presence of mass evokes the gravitational flow of time energy. The measure of the created spatial distortion is the force counterpoise known as weight.
Distortion of the primordial field by a rotating flywheel or gyroscope evokes the od field of inertial anisotropy. In this case the force counterpoise is not explicitly available but nonetheless exists centripetally expressed within the body of the rotating object.
In the interpretation of stellar phenomena the gravitational flow into matter could result in the liberation of heat. Denser matter would increase in temperature. The liberation of energy in stars could result simply because of their mass. As stars became more dense because of gravitational accretion of mass more energy would be liberated. Under gravitational pressure matter itself might have various stages of collapse.
The first stage of collapse could precipitate from the cosmic field energy sufficient to cause a Nova. A second state of collapse could precipitate a Super-Nova. A normal stable star would operate in a density range where matter would retain its identity in terms of the series of known elemental configurations. The collapsed matter stages of the nova or super-nova can only be hypothesized and probably would not be available for study under terrestrial conditions.
The important observation is that the explosion of a star is analogous to the explosion of a flywheel when rotated at sufficient speed such that its internal cohesion is neutralized by a superabundance of time energy precipitated from the cosmic field. In this case the invocation is rotation. For stars the invocation is mass density and the perceived effect is the gravitational flow. What the rotating flywheel and the star have in common is that an explosion can occur when the internal energy exceeds the forces of material cohesion. A long and useful life results when the density of energy invoked from the cosmic field is less than that required for the disruption of the elemental materials from which they are constructed.
1) DePalma, "On the Nature of Electrical Induction", 28 July 1993, Nova Astronautica, vol. 14, number 59, 1994; Magnets, vol. 7, number 8, August 1993; New Energy News, vol. 1, number 6, October 1993.
2) DePalma, N-machine D.C. Generator, 24 March 1978, drawing available from B. E. DePalma, Private Bag 11, Papakura, South Auckland, New Zealand.
3) Kincheloe, Homopolar "Free Energy" Generator Test, presented at 1986 meeting of the Society for Scientific Exploration, San Francisco, CA, U.S.A., 21 June 1986, revised 1 February 1987. Contains references to earlier DePalma papers re N-machine.